Ключевые слова: foreign language, information and communication technology (ICT), model of Blended Learning, virtual cool room, technophobia
Источник статьи: World academy of Science and Technology// ICELET 2013: International Conference on e-Learning and e-Teaching// Zurich, Switzerland, January 2013 Issue 73. 2013// pISSN 2010-376X, eISSN 2010-3778
Сведения об авторе: Кудышева Айнаш Амангельдыевна, кандидат педагогических наук, профессор кафедры «Психология и педагогика»
THE MODEL OF BLENDED LEARNING AND ITS USE AT FOREIGN
A. Kudysheva - candidate of pedagogical science, professor of Psychology and Pedagogy Department of PSU named after S.Torayghirov
Abstract— In present article the model of Blended Learning, its advantage at foreign language teaching, and also some problems that can arise during its use are considered. The Blended Learning is a special organization of learning, which allows to combine classroom work and modern technologies in electronic distance teaching environment. Nowadays a lot of European educational institutions and companies use such technology. Through this method: student gets the opportunity to learn in a group (classroom) with a teacher and additionally at home at a convenient time; student himself sets the optimal speed and intensity of the learning process; this method helps student to discipline himself and learn to work independently.
Keywords— foreign language, information and communication technology (ICT), model of Blended Learning, virtual cool room, technophobia.
NOWADAYS it is impossible to imagine modern education without information technologies. It will take a little more time, and such devices as electronic courses, electronic libraries, latest tutorials and technologies of passing on knowledge will be fixed in concept of traditional training. The settled approaches and techniques are changing now, and which is more important the needs of modern students are also changing. Obviously, it is impossible not to react on these changes. In the conditions of modern information society development these changes are quite natural, and introduction of innovations in education is necessary process. Distance education is one of the new innovative technologies at the present time.
Distance education is the type of the teaching based on educational interaction of teachers and students, realized by means of telecommunication technologies and Internet resources. Distance education on the Internet is a teaching process when the essential part of a training material and the most part of interaction with the teacher is carried out with use of technical, program and administrative means of the global Internet.
True innovation is not frequent phenomenon in pedagogy. We can say that in the modern educational environment the innovation is an introduction into practical activities of discoveries. The prompt development of digital technology in recent decades has led to the fact that learning takes place not only in the classroom and school, it moved to a virtual online world wide web.
Implementation of innovative technologies in process of teaching has led to emergence such form of teachers and students work as Blended Learning.
Blended learning is a quite new method of teaching. This system of training/teaching which combines the best aspects and advantages of teaching in a classroom and interactive or distance education, and creates available and motivating courses for pupils where educational process represents the certain system, consisting of different parts which function in constant interrelation with each other, forming a certain integer.
Blended learning is the very system in which its constituent components of full-time and distance education process interact harmoniously. Under a condition if this interaction is methodically well-organized, in result we get the students’ high level of knowledge. Thus, the model of blended learning is not just use of ICT in independent work of students at home or in a media library after school, blended learning model is a single, holistic learning process, suggesting that some of the cognitive activity of students is carried out in the classroom under the supervision of a teacher, and a part activities of the students, is proposed for distant form, with a predominance of independent work individually or with partners in a small group collaboration.
The concept of blended learning appeared not so long ago, and the definitions are sufficiently descriptive. Thus, Darling Painter in the article «Missed Steps» offers to understand the blended learning as association of strict formal learning tutorials in the classroom, studying of theoretical material with informal, for example, the discussion via e-mail and Internet conferences. 
Purnima Valiathan uses the term "blended learning" to describe solutions that combine different methods of delivering educational content, such as courses, built on Web technologies, EPSS, and knowledge management techniques. He also uses it to describe teaching that combines different types of educational activities, including full-time training (face-to -face), online e-learning (live e-learning) and self-training on a workplace (self-paced learning) .
Alloson Rossett and Rebecca Vaughan Frazze argue that, at first sight, blended learning combines contradictory approaches such as formal and informal learning, "face to face" communication and "online" communication, operated actions and an independent choice of a way, use of the automated references and communications with colleagues to achieve their goals and objectives of the organization. 
Donald Clark in his article “Blended Learning” refers to Roger Schank and defines the blended learning, as use, to some extent, electronic and auditory teaching .
Thus, it is possible to allocate three main components of blended learning model which are used in the modern educational environment:
- full-time education (face-to-face) – represents a traditional form of classroom teacher-student activity;
- self-study learning (self-study learning) - involves individual work of students: search for information using the resource cards, web search, and so on;
- online learning (online collaborative learning) - work of students and teachers online, for example, using Internet conferencing, Skype or wiki, etc.
If summarize all aforesaid, it is possible to define the blended learning as system of training/teaching which combines the most effective aspects and advantages of teaching in a classroom and interactive or distance learning; represents the certain system consisting of different parts which function in constant interrelation with each other, forming a certain integer. Thus, a system in which its constituent components interact harmoniously, under the condition that all these components properly methodically arranged. 
Blended learning model is widely used in Western countries, and according statistic employers are eager to hire graduates of online programs or blended, as they have not only the skills to work with the new computer technologies, but also able to work independently and learn.
What can blended learning model give to language education? In fact, the use of technology in education is not something that completely new. For decades teacher used tape recorders, language classes, video, and still these devices serve as a reliable support to teacher during classes in audiences. With the emerging of computers, educational opportunities have considerably extended, for example computer testing, the use of videos and other computer options. Information and computer technology (ICT) have even more expanded teachers possibilities with the emerging of Internet, for example, the access to authentic foreign language texts, the ability to communicate online with native speakers, the use of training programs in foreign language, and many other things.
Teaching of foreign languages at the university is carried out according the traditional scheme fulfilled by many generations of teachers. Students come to classes where the main sources of information for them are textbooks and lectures; at practical classes they fulfill skills of reading, translation, oral where teacher can use both video, and tape recorders. Monitoring can be carried out by the teacher, with the help of computer-based testing. Actually, the blended learning model does not reject that usefulness of traditional model, but rather improves its possibilities.
Lecture classes. The full material of lectures and their slides is in DES (distance education system) are available to all students and can easily be used for independent studying:
− Practical classes (Face-to-face sessions) in fact can be incorporated with lecture so there is a discussion of the most interesting and important subjects of the course and develop practical skills.
− Teaching Materials exist not only in printing, but also in electronic form, the teacher makes the resource card where the main and additional materials, and useful for student Internet links are specified.
− Online communication. It is absolutely new element which came to the blended learning from online education. There are various devices like chat, forum, Skype that give the chance to students and the teacher to communicate and work together.
− Individual and group projects (Collaboration). This form of work develops skills of work on Internet, skills of search, information analysis, and group work, also improves the ability to assign tasks and take responsibility for taken decisions.
− Virtual Classroom. This device allows students to communicate through variety Internet – communications, without being physically in the classroom that gives students a certain amount of freedom in learning.
− Audio and video lectures, animations, and simulations. These elements of blended learning make the teaching process easier and more enjoyable.
Is there a possibility that the use of ICT will completely replace teacher in the classroom? Premature to talk about it, because the language is a variable value, it requires compulsory element of "live communication", so if we talk about language learning, it can be assumed that the more productive will be characterized by the combined studies. In this case, teaching is based on active student interaction not only with the computer, but with a teacher in the form when the processed independently material is generalized, analyzed and used in real life situations through solving communication problems.
What kind of tasks has a teacher who uses a blended learning model?
In group. First, when making the course it is necessary to well-organize teaching material. This means that teacher should surely know what kind of material will be used in classroom and which one could be used in distance education. It should be considered what teaching material is necessary to explain and work on during the classroom activities; what particular material and exercises are necessary and how much time does it take for different students to develop their skills and might be transferred to distance education, and what kind of material should be given to independent studying. Second, there must be well-organized teaching process. Here we can include such things as the assignment of lesson’s activities in classroom and remotely, solving didactic tasks considering the specific peculiarity of students, the choice of teaching methods in classroom and at the distance education classes, and also monitoring and self-checking of the students. Another important factor is the formation of a stable motivation for teaching and learning activities, which must be maintained throughout the process of learning. The teacher should stimulate self-control, encourage and develop various ways of productive cooperation with the student.
What are the benefits of blended learning? The purpose of this methodology is to form the students’ ability of planning and organizing their activities, focusing on the ultimate result. Students learn to make decisions, to make informed choices and take responsibility for it. They form skills and abilities to work in information space, independently search for, select and analyze information, to represent result with the use of various modern technologies, i.e. there is a formation of necessary speech and sociocultural competences.
Thus it is clear that the model of blended learning fits into the whole concept for the modernization of modern education which based on the introduction of new educational standards and entry into the Bologna process and other international agreements.
However, due to the fact that the level of provision of information technology and the general level of computer literacy in most of Kazakhstan's educational institutions is poor, it is impossible to say that this model is widely used in the course of teaching.
There are some reasons. One of the main problems is the teachers’ fear to use modern computer technology in their work. Here we can mention about technophobia . This characteristic can be attributed to people who are afraid of using new technological developments. Recently, the term “digital natives” not a very good translation that could fairly reflect the essence of the phenomenon, true is that people make extensive use of digital technology in all spheres of their lives, and “digital immigrants” are those who, for various, usually age reasons, does not want to get to the heart of the changes and very precisely reflect the attitude to the use of ICT (information and communication technology) in education. Probably, most of the teachers, as "digital immigrants", they see no need to change the process of teaching subject that fulfilled for years, to pass from use only papers and out-of-date tape recorders to new electronic devices. As the role of the teacher in using of blended learning is increasing, we can say that the motivation and aspiration to self-education is absolutely necessary for the modern teacher in the work with students.
Another quite serious problem is the lack of time. Development of new technologies and the creation of e-learning, information retrieval, preparation of resource cards, presentations, and checking students’ task, all this process takes much time and also require teachers develop new technologies.
One of the serious problems that teachers can face in creating electronic learning resources is the access and use of other authors’ documents. On the one hand, there is copyright problem when using materials especially from the Internet; on the other hand, it is necessary to protect copyright of your own newly created document. When developing a course it is necessary to consider that many materials can be used with the permission of the owner, but it can be difficult, expensive and time consuming process. Sometimes it is difficult to identify the owner, or he could not be hurry to answer.
There are not the all aspects that can be considered in connection with the use of blended learning model in teaching of foreign languages and other subjects. There are many PROS and CONS, which will be discussed, but one thing is certain that the scientific and technological progress made digital technology into an effective learning device, and the expansion of its further use is not in doubt. Finally the competition in the educational market will force many educational institutions to consider ICT as one of the key forms of the student and teacher cooperation, where each of the participants will get the benefit.
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